Tuesday, January 25, 2011

Knowledge: Leaks & Plugs

In 1979, Daewoo Corporation of South Korea signed a collaborative agreement with Bangladeshi company named Desh Garment Ltd (DGL), in 1979.  This is essentially to evade import quota`s imposed on the Koreans by the Americans and Europeans. Daewoo`s idea was to train 130  Bangladeshi`s to make and sell garments, in return for royalties and sales commissions, amounting to 8% of the sales value.

The project was a grand success...for the Bangladeshis. Within a few years, garment production exploded - from 43,000 shirts in 1980 to 2.3 million in 1987 - thanks, largely to the Daewoo-trained workers who left DGL to start their own enterprises. These enterprises brought in about $2 billion in garment sales by 2000 -- 54% of all Bangladeshi exports.

The output of this industry was so prolific that by 1985, the champions of free-trade in America had slapped an import quota`s on Bangladesh as well.

William Easterly (2002) refers to this as a case of `knowledge leak`, and points out that one of the most important bits of knowledge transferred by Daewoo to the DGL workers, had more to do with the machinery of trade & administration rather than textiles. This included the `Special Bonded Warehouse System` which helped DGL in persuading the government (with a a heavily protectionist trading system) to allow duty-free imports for exporters. Another skill transferred was the procedure for opening back-to-back letters of credit.

But then, is it really a case of knowledge `leaking`? That part of the world had long been a center for the textile industry.  Even in the early 1700s the exports from industry to Europe had triggered prompted arson & riots in England, prompting the then emerging colonial power to pass a law prohibiting imports on one hand, and to promote local industries on the other. The industrial revolution that followed resulted in the flooding of Bengal`s markets with cheap imports, decimating the local textile industry.

One way of looking at the relatively recent surge in production of trade goods in countries like Bangladesh is that the local players are merely learning to play and old game with a newer set of rules...


Monday, January 24, 2011

Making Sense of Lens

As I get used to the joys of shooting with a DSLR - and the discomfort of lugging it around - it has dawned on me that I know almost nothing about the lens because the kit box comes with a manual only for the body - not for the lens!

The kit-lens that came with the D90 is called AF-S DX NIKKOR 18-105mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR . Now, what is this hieroglyphic supposed to mean?

Here is what is revealed by the breaking up the code, with some generous help from the gurus on the web -

AF-S: `Auto Focus - Silent` - a "silent wave" focusing lens with an improved focusing speed.  This was achieved by putting a silent wave focusing motor in the lens itself to make it quiet.

DX: Indicates a lens designed to cover the smaller image circle of the digital camera bodies. May still work on 35mm bodies at some focal lengths.

NIKKOR: Brand-name for lenses manufactured by Nikon

18-105mm: Aperture range

f/3.5-5.6: Focal lengths

G: Indicates that the lens does not have a built-in aperture ring (as in D-type lens) and needs to be used on camera with Command dial control of apertures.
Interestingly, G stands for `Gelded`, or castrated! So its not a feature but a handicap! Details can be seen  here.

ED: Extra-low Dispersion elements used in the lens

VR: Vibration Reduction lens, corrects for camera movement during exposure. VR function only works on post F5 cameras (e.g., not F4, N90s, N60, N70, N8008).

This lens configuration - called the `standard zoom` (5.8x) -  is supposed to have 15 elements in 11 groups, of which one each aspherical and another one with extra-low (ED) dispersion. Aspherical lenses help in correcting the distortion caused by the wide-angle lenses while the ED prevents dispersion of colors as the pass through the prism and glass elements

Strangely, Nikon sells this kit-lens with a worldwide warranty, but, for the body, it is limited to Japan only.

Codes awaiting translation: vignetting, 'softish corners', barrel distortion,MTF curves,


Thursday, January 20, 2011

Demolishing Dogma`s in Economics

A few days ago, I fished out a book from a crate awaiting its turn to get dumped in the `combustibles` garbage-bin down the corridor. It was a book by William Easterly, titled `The Elusive Quest for Growth`. Having read some of his papers for my thesis, I flipped through it and found that it was written while he was working as a World Bank economist in 2001.

In the original edition, Easterly had praised WB for letting letting gadflies like him to `exercise intellectual freedom`, but later, for the paperback edition, he modified it to `the WB encourages gadflies like me...to find another job`. Now this got me curious. What was in this book that made the bank so queasy?

Quite a lot, actually. The book is essentially a sugar-coated indictment of the Western approach to aid & development, for overlooking (or ignoring) one basic tenet -- that people respond to incentives. One by one, Easterly picks up the growth-mantras promoted by the Bretton Woods institutions and shows how shallow and grossly inadequate they were for the task at hand: growth and poverty alleviation. What is even worse is the fact that these misguided approaches continue to be the bedrock of most multilateral programs in international development.

He starts with the dogma of `Aid for Development` (aka the financing-gap approach) and illustrates with the case of Ghana (1957-84) how it reduced a country full of potential and promise into a basket-case banana republic. This idea of aid-financed investment in dams, roads and machines to promote growth, was based on a 1946 paper by an economics professor, Evsey Domar, who disavowed it in less than ten years. Yet, thanks to the fog of the Cold War, it continued to be the basis (the Harrod-Domar Model was re-bottled as ICOR) for lending to 138 countries, of which just one - Tunisia - could be claimed as a success story.

Easterly then turns to `capital fundamentalism` - the belief that increasing buildings and machinery is the fundamental determinant of growth - and its conflict with Robert Solow`s argument that the only only source of growth in the long run is technological change. But Solow`s model too was based on just the study of USA and not on any tropical country. He then tries to see if there has been any correlation between growth of education and GDP-growth (there isn`t), population-growth vs. GDP (again, nil) and discusses the futility of the conditional, `adjustment lending` by WB and IMF.

What I liked especially in this book was the way it illustrates macro-economics situtations with real, down-to-earth examples, starting with the `Intermezzo`s` with the struggles of his own ancestor, a homeless, impoverished migrant. For, `when we look at poor countries today, we see out own past poverty. In the long run, we all come from the lower class`.

I can`t remember the last time I felt so connected to anything written by an economist. And I am so glad I saw this book before it landed in the garbage-bin! :)


Easterly, William (2001). The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economist`s Adventures in the Tropics. MIT Press 2002. Amazon - http://www.amazon.com/Elusive-Quest-Growth-Economists-Misadventures/dp/026205065X

Wednesday, January 19, 2011

Two-in-One: A Borrower & A Lender

Last March, we had wondered about the quantum of Chinese ODA and come across an intresting paradox -- even while continuing to receive concessional lending from multilateral institutions, China itself had become a big lender & ODA player, globally.

At the time, the actual volume of lending was not revealed even by visiting Chinese academics, but now, the Financial Times has come up with some dramatic figures. According to its `China Special` report published yesterday, `China Development Bank and China Export-Import Bank signed loans of at least $110bn (£70bn) to other developing country governments and companies in 2009 and 2010, according to Financial Times research. The equivalent arms of the World Bank made loan commitments of $100.3bn from mid-2008 to mid-2010`.

If one assumes that the `equivalent arms of WB` here refers to IBRD and IDA, it would be interesting to know what the bank thinks of its customer who is a bigger lender!


  • China`s Lending Hits New Heights (FT 17 Jan., 2011) http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/488c60f4-2281-11e0-b6a2-00144feab49a.html#axzz1BXYaHP4s
  • A Strategy to Straddle the Planet (FT 17 Jan, 2011) - http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/b852a826-2272-11e0-b6a2-00144feab49a,dwp_uuid=9c33700c-4c86-11da-89df-0000779e2340.html#axzz1BXYaHP4s
    (Excerpt - One Indian executive reflects that his country ships plastic pellets to China that are then made into buckets. If India cannot even make plastic buckets competitively, he implies, its battle will be tough.)

Birds Around Ichinoya, Tsukuba

Attempting to identify and list the birds around Ichinoya-Pond, University of Tsukuba, Japan...

PASSERINES (Perching birds)

  • Green Pheasant (Male) May 2010: The National Bird of Japan. Quite stunning when you see it up close.

  • Green Pheasant (Female) May 2010

    •  Black-backed wagtail or Kamchatka/Japanese Pied Wagtail, with its distinct black eye-stripe. (pic source: Wikipedia Commons) 
    •  Hawfinch (Coccothraustes coccothraustes)  - spotted near the central library, TsukubaU. (pic source: Wikipedia Commons)

    Others - 



    Tuesday, January 18, 2011

    Which is Your Favourite Alphabet?

    An interesting interview with the typeface designer, Erik Spiekermann... About his getting a kick out of being the `unknown author`... and the joy of making railway timetables easier to read.
    That is what makes a nations culture - the visual surroundings: good architecture, good food and good timetables, or good announcements at stations. I think it is a very important cultural contribution...You can make the most amazing design but most people will never notice it, and that, in fact, is the important point - nobody is supposed to know it has changed - it just `got better`.

    Bonus: Spewing venom on Microsoft. `Just to avoid paying Linotype license fees for using the Helvetica font, they contracted Monotype-UK to redesign it...`. Considering the time and money Microsoft spends to protect their own copyrights, it is disconcerting to know how they go about appropriating  copyrights of others.


    Thursday, January 13, 2011

    Back to SLRs and Nikon

    In 2002, when I picked up my first SLR from Mustafa`s in Singapore, I thought it would help me learn the art of photography. It did not. The Nikon F-65 was so heavy and bulky, I just did not feel like traveling with it and it remained packed with silica-gel until it became so outdated that I could barely manage to sell it at Palika Bazaar for a pittance.

    At the time, I had sworn not to buy another SLR. Instead I became a dedicated point-and-shoot digicam fan, starting with a Nikon Coolpix 5600 (2006). Then came a Canon 860-IS (2008), followed by another Canon - the G11 (2009).

    I was especially fond of the G11 with its articulate screen, eyepiece, and sensitivity to low-light, but, unfortunately, its rugged looks were deceptive. Durability proved to be less than impressive. After two instances of dead buttons and hang-up`s and as many visits to the Canon service center, I thought it was better to dispose the camera while it was still in the one-year warranty period. Last week, I got Y16,000 for it from the second-hand store, WonderEx-Tsukuba.

    Since then, I have been agonising over a replacement. I wanted something light and compact, with articulate screens and the flexibility of detachable lenses. The options on the table were: Sony Nex5 (Yen 56k, 300g), Sony Alpha55, Olympus EP2 and Panasonic Lumix GH2 (Y101k kit 14-140mm, 492g+460g). I checked them out a few times at Yodobashi Camera and KS-Denki and it seemed like a big risk to pay so much for equipment that was neither significantly smaller - especially with the long-lenses, nor tried-and-tested.

    So I have decided to play safe with an older (hence cheaper) model - the Nikon D90 with 18-105mm kit for Y80k from Kakaku.com . It is neither compact, nor light; it does not have an articulate screen that was a must-have on my list... but the biggest concern remains portability.

    I hope this SLR won`t get mothballed like its older cousin.

    REFERENCES - The Camera-Hunting Trail

    The background blur effect - http://www.wikihow.com/Blur-the-Background-of-a-Photograph
    About four-thirds and micro four-thirds) - http://www.four-thirds.org/en/index.html
    (micro four-thirds forum - http://www.mu-43.com/forum.php)
    General discussion on photography - http://kenrockwell.com/tech/death-of-photography.htm
    Thom Hogan - http://www.bythom.com/
    Nikon-Canon DSLR comparison - http://www.digital-slr-guide.com/canon-vs-nikon.html

    Comparing GH1 / Alpha-55 / Kiss - http://bbs.kakaku.com/bbs/K0000089559/SortID=12065266/

    Competition for Nikon D90 --- Canon EOS 40D ---- Pentax K20D

    Pentax K20D.......weatherproofed
    Review - http://www.dpreview.com/reviews/PentaxK20D/
    Price - Y89k for body - http://kakaku.com/item/00491011105/

    Canon EoS 40D
    Review - http://www.dpreview.com/reviews/canoneos40d/
    Price list - http://kakaku.com/camera/digital-slr-camera/ma_14/

    Canon EoS 60D.........................................755g
    Price - Y72,190 - http://bbs.kakaku.com/bbs/K0000141272/
    Canon EoS 7D
    Price - Y105k - http://kakaku.com/item/K0000055429/

    Nikon D3000
    Price - Kakaku - Y31,549 - http://kakaku.com/item/K0000049457/
    Comparisons - D3000, D5000, D60 - http://www.dpreview.com/reviews/NikonD3000/

    Nikon D7000...................................780g
    Review & comparison with D90, D300S - http://www.dpreview.com/previews/Nikond7000/
    Price - Kakaku (30/10) - Y120,488 - http://kakaku.com/item/K0000151480/  55-300mm lens - Y28,350 http://bbs.kakaku.com/bbs/K0000139410/SortID=11915700/  10-24mm Y,82,680 http://bbs.kakaku.com/bbs/K0000030214/  18-105mm Y42,148 http://bbs.kakaku.com/bbs/10503512019/

    Nikon D90
    Price - Kakaku - Y55,820 - http://kakaku.com/item/00490711142/  with 18-105mmVR lens - Y81,375 http://kakaku.com/item/00490711143/?lid=shop_itemview_comparison_5#tab
    Review photo.net - http://photo.net/equipment/product-detail?product_id=3284

    Olympus PEN E-P1 - 335g (no batt)
    Review - http://www.siftwire.com/olympus-e-p1-esia-mju-8000-digital-camera-awards.html
    Review - photo.net - http://photo.net/equipment/olympus/ep1/preview/
    Review - http://www.bythom.com/olympusep1review.htm
    Discussion - http://forums.dpreview.com/forums/read.asp?forum=1041&message=33609440&q=EP2&qf=m
    Price - Kakaku (29 Oct) - Body Y-58,700, Lens 14-42mm (28-84mm eq)- Y-21,375 // Lens 17mm (=34mm) - Yen 34,400
    Price - Amazon (29 Oct) Y-59,800 - kit incl - camera (335g) + 14-42mm (150g) + M-17mm (71g)-
    E-P2 ---- no built-in flash, no view-finder
    Official page - http://www.olympusamerica.com/cpg_section/product.asp?product=1482
    Review - http://www.dpreview.com/reviews/OlympusEP2/  (E-620 DSLR specs into this camera)
    Review-photo.net - http://photo.net/equipment/olympus/ep2/preview/
    Review - http://www.cameralabs.com/reviews/Olympus_E-P2/
    Price - Kakaku - Y-88,143 (with M.Zuiko 17mm lens) - http://kakaku.com/item/K0000068068 / Y76,800  with 14-42mm - http://bbs.kakaku.com/bbs/K0000068067/SortID=11402390/
    Price -Amazon - Y89,222 kit (14-42mm) Y22k for EVF; Y15k for flash -
    Customer Review - http://www.amazon.co.jp/product-reviews/B0043237G0/ref=dp_top_cm_cr_acr_txt?ie=UTF8&showViewpoints=1
    Comments E-P1-E-P2 - http://www.engadget.com/2009/11/05/olympus-e-p2-official-patches-over-e-p1-problems-and-jacks-up-t/#comments
    Comments E-P2 vs. GF1 - http://www.flickr.com/groups/olympuse-p1/discuss/72157622997497133/
    User Guide YouTube - http://www.mu-43.com/f42/olympus-e-p2-quick-start-part-1-a-586/
    Reviews- http://www.imaging-resource.com/PRODS/EP2/EP2A.HTM?r=45976846
    Review - Wired - http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2009/11/olympus-ep-2-comes-out-early-almost-no-new-features/
    Comparisons- Photo.net - http://photo.net/digital-camera-forum/00VHwk
    Note: E-P2 - operating temp is 0-40C only; humidity 30-90%

    Olympus E-450 - smallest DSLR - 380g!
    Review - http://www.dpreview.com/news/0903/09033101olympuse450.asp

    Olympus E-30 - semi-pro DSLRs - 730g
    Review & comparison between E-3, E-30 and E-620 - http://www.dpreview.com/reviews/olympuse30/

    Sony Alpha NEX-3 / NEX-5
    Review - http://www.dpreview.com/reviews/SonyNex5Nex3
    Price - Kakaku - Y-46,130 (with E-16mm lens) - http://bbs.kakaku.com/bbs/K0000109869/SortID=11382851/

    Sony Alpha A55 - (Time 22 Nov: `fixes mirror flip problem with an ingenious translucent mirror)
    Review - http://www.dpreview.com/reviews/sonyslta55/
    - Price - Yen 56k (body) - http://bbs.kakaku.com/bbs/K0000140388/SortID=11807195/
    - Comparison with Lumic GH2 - http://snapsort.com/compare/Panasonic_Lumix_DMC-GH2-vs-Sony_SLT-A55
    - Best lens Q & A - http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20101120001152AAZQ2ln
    - Best lens - http://camera.downloadatoz.com/tutorials,467,top-tips-for-selecting-a-best-zoom-lens-for-sony-slt-a55.html
    - Vario-Sonnar DT 16-80 Y72k, 445g - http://bbs.kakaku.com/bbs/10506511769/SortID=10094043/
    - DT 18-55 Y8.9k, 210g - http://bbs.kakaku.com/bbs/K0000035099 / --- recco from-http://forums.dpreview.com/forums/read.asp?forum=1037&message=36635716
    - DT 18-250 Y44k, 440g - http://bbs.kakaku.com/bbs/10506511878/
    - Tamron 18-250 Y42k, 550g - http://bbs.kakaku.com/bbs/10505512012/SortID=11879495/
    - Kit types - http://forums.dpreview.com/forums/readflat.asp?forum=1037&message=36557006&changemode=1  (cheaper jap-only version!)
    - Kit options - http://www.aqua-feel.com/shopbrand/017/005/X/
    - Video overheating problem - http://forums.sonyinsider.com/topic/26012-si-sony-a55-and-a33-dslr-cameras-can-get-too-hot-when-shooting-video/

    Panasonic Lunix TZ7 / ZS3 review - http://www.dphotojournal.com/panasonic-lumix-dmc-tz7-zs3-review-samples-user-manual/
    Manual (English-PDF) - http://service.us.panasonic.com/OPERMANPDF/DMCZS1.PDF

    Fuji-Finepix - Fuji F80EXR instead of the S90 for longer reach in the lens, 27-270 vs 28-105. Lots of things in the Grand Canyon beg for telephoto. Dynamic range of EXR is better http://fujifilm.jp/personal/digitalcamera/finepixf80exr/index.html

    Panasonic Lumix GF1
    Price - Kakaku (30/10) - Y35,264 (body only) - http://kakaku.com/item/K0000055861/  Y38,836 (30/10) LUMIX G 20mm/F1.7  ASPH. H-H020付属 http://bbs.kakaku.com/bbs/K0000055862/SortID=11631637/  Lens 14-45mm - Y 22,895 http://review.kakaku.com/review/K0000027535/ReviewCD=317025/  //
    Review - http://www.dpreview.com/reviews/PanasonicGF1/
    Review & Comparisons - http://reviews.cnet.com/digital-cameras/panasonic-lumix-dmc-gf1/4505-6501_7-33770516.html
    Review - http://www.dcresource.com/reviews/panasonic/dmc_gf1-review
    Review- Lens 14-45mm - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J7q9nP0fKB4&feature=fvw
    Review - http://www.bythom.com/panasonic_GF1_review.htm
    Comparison with E-P1 - http://www.dpreview.com/reviews/panasonicgf1/page2.asp
    Forum - comparison with G11 - http://photo.net/digital-camera-forum/00Wp49
    Forum - http://www.rangefinderforum.com/forums/forumdisplay.php?f=146

    Panasonic GF2
    Review - http://www.engadget.com/2010/11/04/panasonic-lumix-gf2-preview/
    Review - http://www.dpreview.com/news/1011/10110405panasonicgf2.asp  /// http://www.dpreview.com/previews/panasonicdmcgf2/
    Review - http://www.t3.com/reviews/cameras/digital-cameras/panasonic-lumix-gf2-review-hands-on

    Panasonic GH2
    Review - http://www.dpreview.com/previews/panasonicdmcgh2/
    Review - Amazon - http://www.amazon.com/Panasonic-DMC-GH2-Interchangeable-Free-Angle-Black/product-reviews/B0043VE27Y/ref=dp_db_cm_cr_acr_txt?ie=UTF8
    Forum - http://photo.net/olympus-camera-forum/00Xspr
    Lens 45-200- Y31,868 http://kakaku.com/item/10504312024/spec/
    Quote - http://seiwa-d.com/pf-dmc.htm#FS045200

    Comparison with Sony A55 Discussion - http://forums.dpreview.com/forums/read.asp?forum=1000&message=36581476
    Forum - http://forums.dpreview.com/forums/read.asp?forum=1037&message=36473999
    Advantages l;ist - http://forums.dpreview.com/forums/read.asp?forum=1037&message=36430456
    Lens kit 14-140 kit Y101k!(GH2 H-K) - http://pc-town.jp/fs/ptwn/gd1721  (black) http://kakaku.com/item/K0000152866/  (silver)

    Panasonic LX3
    Company page - http://panasonic.jp/dc/lx3/
    Price - Kakaku - Y36,800 http://kakaku.com/item/00501911289/

    Leica M8
    Price - Kakaku - Y355,628! (1Nov) - http://kakaku.com/item/00500711066/

    * Review of Nikon AF-S 50mm/1.8G - http://photo.net/equipment/nikon/lenses/50-G/preview/

    Saturday, January 08, 2011

    Seeing Kathakali in Kabuki

    What is it about Kabuki that makes it instantly appealing to my - decidedly Indian - eyes?

    Perhaps it is the similarities one see with Kathakali: stylized costumes that exaggerate body movement and facial expressions and a background narrative which stretches out words in a slow, sing-song manner, giving you the time to soak in the nuances at a thoughtful pace. Or maybe it is simply because the televised performances on NHK always comes with a transcript that can be deciphered even by Nihongo novices like me!

    Here are two classic Japanese movies (with English subtitles) that give us glimpse into the world of Kabuki artists:

    ICHIKAWA KON's 雪之丞変化 / Yukinojō Henge (Yukinojo's Revenge / Revenge of a Kabuki Actor (1963)) - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AHySBLNTM50&feature=related


    MIZOGUCHI KENJI's 残菊物語 / Zangiku Monogatari (The Story of Late Chrysanthemums, 1939) - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9V26w7gPihI&feature=related 

    Friday, January 07, 2011


    Deductive Arguments are arguments where, if its premise is true, the conclusion must also be true. They are also called “valid” arguments. Here is an an interesting classification of deductive arguments -

    Modus ponens (“mode of putting”)

    If the letters p and q stand for declarative sentences:

    If p then q.
    Therefore q.

    If there is no chance factor in chess, then chess is a game of pure skill.
    There is no chance factors in chess.
    Therefore, chess is a game of pure skill.

    Modus tollens (“mode of talking”)

    If p then q.
    Therefore, not-p.

    Eg., Sherlock Holmes in A.C. Doyle’s “The Adventure of Silver Blaze” –
    A dog was kept in the stables, and yet, though someone had been in and fetched out a horse [the dog] had not barked…Obviously the …visitor was someone whom the dog knew well.

    In Modus tollens form –

    If the visitor was a stranger, then the dog would have barked.
    The dog did not bark.
    Therefore, the visitor was not a stranger.

    Hypotherical Syllogism

    If p then q.
    If q then r.
    Therefore, if p then r.

    If you study other cultures, then you start to realize the variety of human customs.
    If you start to realize the variety of human customs, then you become more tolerant.
    Therefore, if you study other cultures, then you become more tolerant.

    Disjunctive Syllogism

    p or q.
    Therefore, q.

    Eg., - Bertand Russell in Skeptical Essays (1935)
    Either we hope for progress by improving morals or we hope for progress by improving intelligence.
    We can’t hope for progress by improving morals.
    Therefore, we must hope for progress by improving intelligence.


    Ad hominem (“to the man”) – attacking the person of a source rather than his qualifications or reliability, or the actual argument he makes.
    Eg., - It is no surprise that Carl Sagan argues for life in Mars – after all, he was a well-known atheist. I don’t believe it for a minute.

    Ad ignorantium (“appeal to ignorance”) – arguing that a claim is true because it has not been shown to be false.
    Eg., Senator Joseph McCarthy when asked for evidence to back up his accusation that a certain person was a Communist: “I don’t have much information on this except the general statement of the agency that there is nothing in the files to disprove his Communist connections.”

    Ad misericordiam (“appeal to pity”) – appealing to pity as an argument for special treatment
    Eg.: I know I flunked every exam, but if I don’t pass this course,I’ll have to retake it in summer school. You have to let me pass!

    Ad populum – appealing to emotions of a crowd; also appealing to a person to go along with the crowd (“Everybody’s doing it!”)

    Affirming the consequent – a deductive mistake of the form –
    If p then q.
    Therefore p. (it overlooks alternatives)

    When the roads are icy, the mail is late.
    The mail is late.
    Therefore, the roads are icy.

    Begging the question / Circular argument / petition principii implicitly using your conclusion as a premise.
    Eg., -
    The Bible is true, because God wrote it.
    The Bible says that God exists.
    Therefore, God exists.

    Complex question – posing a question in such a way that people cannot agree or disagree with you without committing themselves to some other claim you wish to promote.

    Eg.,: “Are still as self-centered as you used to be?”

    Denying the antecedent – overlooking alternatives in modus tollens

    False dilemma – reducing options you consider to just two, often diametrically opposed to each other and unfair to the people against whom the dilemma is posed.
    Eg., - “America: Love It or Leave It” (again overlooks alternatives).

    Non sequitur (“does not follow”) – a conclusion that is not a reasonable inference from the evidence.

    Poisoning the well – using loaded language to disparage an argument before even mentioning it –
    Eg., - “I’m confident you haven’t been taken in by those few holdouts who still haven’t outgrown the superstition that…” (more subtly – No sensitive person thinks that…)

    Post hoc, ergo propter hoc (“after this, therefore because of this”) – assuming causation merely on the basis of mere succession in time.

    Red herring – introducing an irrelevant subject and thereby diverting attention from the main subject.
    Eg., In a discussion on the relative safety of cars, the issue of cars made in America is a red herring.

    Straw man – a caricature of an opposing view, exaggerated from what anyone is likely to hold, so it is easy to refute.
    Weston, Antony (2009). A Rulebook of Arguments. Hackett Publishing Co. Cambridge.